", embodies "an essential being ethnic" as opposed to "a constructed belonging to an ethnicity". The IC classification is still used for descriptions of suspects by police officers amongst themselves, but does risk incorrectly identifying a victim, a witness or a suspect compared to that person's own description of their ethnicity. [37] In Scotland, the 2011 Scottish census categories are now used. Discover your ethnicity with AncestryDNA. Asian, Black, Chinese, Mixed, White British, White other, Other. [33] The National Pupil Database attempts to match pupils' educational attainment to their characteristics gathered in the school census, including ethnicity. To remedy this, the Muslim Council of Britain proposed that this census category should be broken down instead into specific ethnic groups. These problems are ambiguity in respect of the populations that are described by different labels, the invisibility of white minority groups in official classifications, the acceptability of the terms used to those that they describe, and whether the collectivities have any substantive meaning. However, the question was not asked in Northern Ireland. The guidance notes on data collection note that ethnicity is a personal, subjective awareness, and that pupils and their parents can refuse to answer the ethnicity question. Mixed race people are the fastest growing ethnic group in the UK and numbered 1.25 million in the 2011 census. [17] NABA reasoned that "lack of recognition of Arabs as a separate ethnic group, and hence their exclusion, has serious consequences for the planning of services and monitoring of such problems as racial discrimination". They suggested that conscious changes in affiliation explained little of this instability, whereas unreliability of the question was significant, partly due to the ambiguous nature of the categories used and partly due to imprecision in the imputation of missing values. Colloquially it refers to British citizens or residents whose parents are of two or more different races or ethnic backgrounds. [10] It was estimated in 2007 that, by 2020, 1.24 million people in the UK would be of mixed race. Find some examples and approaches that will shed some light on how to write ethnicity survey questions. Follow this pattern if you need to ask users in the UK for their ethnic group. These categories also are widely used by researchers and businesses in order to be consistent with federal standards. [15], The estimates for mid-2009 for England only suggest that there are 301,300 people in the Mixed White and Black Caribbean category, 127,500 Mixed White and Black African, 292,400 Mixed White and Asian, and 235,500 Other Mixed. These summaries are based on data published on Ethnicity facts and figures (or being published soon). [41], A number of terms have been used, by government and more generally, to refer to the collective ethnic minority population. They remarked that the category did not provide enough information on the considerable diversity that existed within the various populations currently classified under this heading. [9] The White and Black African group grew fastest in percentage terms from 2001 to 2009, followed by White and Asian, Other Mixed and then White and Black Caribbean. Instead, due to later policy changes, people from these groups began to be accepted into the wider “white” race. In March 2002, the Association of Chief Police Officers proposed a new system for self-definition, based on the 2001 census. If these codes are judged to not meet local needs, local authorities may use a Department for Education approved list of extended categories. 4. [23] Samira Shackle, writing in the New Statesman, argues that "the fact that hundreds of thousands choose to describe their own ethnicity as Welsh, Scottish, or Cornish shows that 'ethnic British' is a nebulous concept".[18]. And this means that we should rather ask people which group they see themselves as belonging to. Police forces and civil and emergency services, the NHS and local authorities in England and Wales may refer to this as the "6+1" system, named after the 6 classifications of ethnicity plus one category for "not stated". In the write-in area, they also noted their own respective ethnic groups, with few opting to write-in "Black". This section provides a brief overview of the key legislation relating to ethnicity, … The analysis in this report is based mostly around the 10-category ethnicity breakdown given in this section. They are now identified as individual ethnic groups. 0%. There are 18 ethnic groups in England and Wales. ", Measuring Equality: A guide for the collection and classification of ethnic group, national identity and religion data in the UK, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Classification_of_ethnicity_in_the_United_Kingdom&oldid=988395998, Articles with dead external links from August 2011, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, English/Welsh/Scottish/Northern Irish/British, Any other White background, please describe, Any other White ethnic group, please describe, Any other Mixed / Multiple ethnic background, please describe, Any Mixed or Multiple ethnic groups, please describe, Indian, Indian Scottish or Indian British, Pakistani, Pakistani Scottish or Pakistani British, Bangladeshi, Bangladeshi Scottish or Bangladeshi British, Chinese, Chinese Scottish or Chinese British, African, African Scottish or African British, Caribbean, Caribbean Scottish or Caribbean British, Any other Black / African / Caribbean background, please describe, Any other Caribbean or Black, please describe, Chinese, Japanese, or other South East Asian, The officer's presence is urgently required elsewhere, The person did not understand what is required, The person declined to define their ethnicity, This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 22:36. To do this, they would have to select one of the "any other" tick-boxes on the census form and write in their answer in the box provided. [26] However, the data collected still allow for comparison across the UK. Ethnicity is recorded on the basis of the student's own self-assessment. The latest OMB standards, issued in 1997, require that data be collected and reported for five major race groups: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White. They concluded that the membership of the "White" category was stable, whereas 7–9 per cent of those in the "Asian" group and 23 per cent of both the "Caribbean" and the "African" group in 1991 had switched to another group by 2001. How it works. Most schools and local authorities instead used the Welsh Assembly Government's national free school meal (FSM) benchmark data, which ranks a school's performance relative to other groups of schools with comparable free school meal levels. ", "Should BAME be ditched as a term for black, Asian and minority ethnic people? Analysis of census results shows that, in England and Wales only, 237,000 people stated their ethnicity as Mixed White and Black Caribbean, 189,000 as Mixed White and Asian, 156,000 as Other Mixed, and 79,000 Mixed White and Black African. [9] As of May 2011, this figure surpassed 1 million. Racial and Ethnic Identity (Optional) Choose one Ethnic Identity: Hispanic/Latino 0%. [30] From 1 April 2003, police forces were required to use this new system. Peter Aspinall argues that the 2001 census categories fail to adequately break down the "white" group and ignore ethno-religious differences between South Asian groups, amongst other issues. A person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America (including Central America), and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. These include "black and minority ethnic" (BME), "black, Asian and minority ethnic" (BAME) and "black and ethnic minority" (BEM). Ethnicity breakdowns. The codes used are based on the categories used in the 2001 UK census, with added "Travellers of Irish heritage", "Gypsy/Roma heritage" and "Sri Lankan Other" categories. The GOS found that "Black" was a polarising term for many focus group participants and interviewees. So, in ethnic group questions, we are unable to base ethnic identification upon objective, quantifiable information as we would, say, for age or gender. [17], "2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom", 2011 Census: Ethnic group, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 27 December 2012, 2011 census NIRSA Ethnic Group: KS201NI (administrative geographies), "Negotiating race and ethnicity: Exploring the implications of the 1991 census", "Population size: 7.9% from a minority ethnic group", "Resident Population Estimates by Ethnic Group, All Persons June 2009", "Non-white British population reaches 9.1 million", "Mixed race UK population double official figure, says new report", "Britain's mixed-race population blurs the lines of identity politics", "Birthweight and gestational age by ethnic group, England and Wales 2005: Introducing new data on births", http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171776_290558.pdf, "Harmonised Concepts and Questions for Social Data Sources: Primary Standards – Ethnic Group", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mixed_(United_Kingdom_ethnicity_category)&oldid=989664727, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 08:58. Vatican City These schemata have been the subject of debate, including about the nature of ethnicity, how or whether it can be categorised, and the relationship between ethnicity, race, and nationality. A number of academics have pointed out that the ethnicity classification employed in the census and other official statistics in the UK since 1991 involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. The Department for Education's annual school census collects data on pupils in nurseries, primary, middle, secondary and special schools. The Asian/Asian British ethnic group categories had some of the largest increases between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses. This includes ethnicity data for pupils who are aged 5 or over at the beginning of the school year in August. The Office for National Statistics explain this as follows: Is a person's ethnic group self-defined? [35][36], The ethnic group categories used in the National Health Service in England are based on the 2001 census. The guidance notes on data collection note that ethnicity is a personal, subjective awareness, and that pupils and their parents can refuse to answer the ethnicity question. Example. The CDC code set is based on current federal standards for classifying data on race and ethnicity, specifically the minimum race and ethnicity categories defined by the OMB and a more detailed set of race and ethnicity categories maintained by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. In 2011, the White British population accounted for 87.1% of the entire United Kingdom’s population. The NPD was also used least by the majority of local authorities and schools, with 65 percent deeming this method of educational data analysis to be of limited use, about 23 percent considering it to be fairly useful, and only around 11 percent regarding it as being very useful. ", "A guide to comparing 1991 and 2001 Census ethnic group data", "Negotiating race and ethnicity: Exploring the implications of the 1991 census", "Ethnic Classification in Global Perspective: A Cross-National Survey of the 2000 Census Round", "New complexities of cohesion in Britain: Super-diversity, transnationalism and civil-integration", "Final recommended questions for the 2011 Census in England and Wales: Ethnic group", "Scotland's New Official Ethnicity Classification", Fight goes on to include Cornish ethnicity and language in Census 2011 options, "Summary report: experts, community and special interest groups", "Arab Population in the UK - Study for consideration of inclusion of 'Arab' as an ethnic group on future census returns", "Is there any such thing as British ethnicity? The white European population included the population in the Northern Ireland. Definitions for Racial and Ethnic Categories The Revisions to OMB Directive 15 defines each racial and ethnic category as follows: American Indian or Alaska Native. [5], A number of academics have pointed out that the ethnicity classification employed in the census and other official statistics in the UK since 1991 involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. In that census, 677,177 classified themselves as of mixed ethnicity, making up 1.2 percent of the UK population. Persons with multiple ancestries could indicate their respective ethnic backgrounds under a "Mixed or multiple ethnic groups" write-in area. These are the first in a series of summaries about some of those groups. These categories formed the basis for all National Statistics ethnicity statistics until the 2011 Census results were issued. [42][43][44] A survey published in November 2020 found that the term "BAME" offended those whom it attempts to describe, with "ethnically diverse communities" preferred when speaking broadly, and relevant terms for a specific community or person. Population of England and Wales Regional ethnic diversity Demographics. The question used in the later 1991 census was similar to that tested in 1989,[3] and took the same format on the census forms in England, Wales and Scotland. … The two-question format provides flexibility and ensures data quality. The current standards were published in 1997. [11], User consultation undertaken by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) for the purpose of planning the 2011 census in England and Wales found that most of the respondents from all ethnic groups that took part in the testing felt comfortable with the use of the terms "Black" and "White". [13], 3.5 percent of all births in England and Wales in 2005 were mixed-ethnicity babies, with 0.9 percent being Mixed White and Black Caribbean, 0.5 percent White and Black African, 0.8 percent White and Asian, and 1.3 percent any other mixed background. They include some population statistics from the most recent Census (2011). Nominate a UK person for an Honour. [20][21] However, in the ONS's testing in England and Wales prior to the census, no Kurdish, Iranian, Berber, Somali or Egyptian participants chose to identify as Arab. [2] Field trials had started in 1975 to establish whether a question could be devised that was acceptable to the public and would provide information on race or ethnicity that would be more reliable than questions about an individual's parents' birthplaces. When asking for users’ ethnic groups: make the questions optional; use the exact wording of the questions as shown in this pattern; use the exact ethnic group categories … The ethnicity data used in UK national statistics relies on individuals' self-definition. UK population by ethnicity Population statistics and 2011 Census data. [4], Sociologist Peter J. Aspinall has categorised what he regards as a number of "persistent problems with salient collective terminology". [34] Additionally, researchers conducting analysis for the London Borough of Lambeth have argued that broad ethnic groupings such as "black African" or "white other" can hide significant variation in educational performance, so they instead recommend the use of language categories. [4][5] Aspinall notes that sustained academic attention has been focused on "how the censuses measure ethnicity, especially the use of dimensions that many claim have little to do with ethnicity, such as skin colour, race, and nationality". A number of academics have pointed out that the ethnicity classification employed in the census and other official statistics in the UK since 1991 involve confusion between the concepts of ethnicity and race. [8], In 2007, Simpson and Bola Akinwale also studied the stability of individuals' responses to ethnic group questions between the 1991 and 2001 census. [11] However, according to HM Inspectorate for Education and Training in Wales, the database contains data inaccuracies. 100%. The "6+1" IC code system remains widely used, when the police are unable to stop a suspect and ask them to give their self-defined ethnicity. [8], Office for National Statistics estimates suggest that 956,700 mixed-ethnicity people were resident in England (as opposed to the whole of the UK) as of mid-2009, compared to 654,000 at mid-2001. This concealed heterogeneity ultimately made the gathered data of limited use analytically. Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census. The data on race were derived from answers to the question on race that was asked of individuals in the United States. The separate categories shall be used when collecting and reporting race and ethnicity when information is collected through self-identification, such as household meal applications. Opposition to the term "Black" was strongest among individuals originating from ethnic groups in Africa and the Caribbean, especially the former. [30], The Department for Education's annual school census collects data on pupils in nurseries, primary, middle, secondary and special schools. Key legislation. [40] Writing in the Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Charles Agyemang, Raj Bhopal and Marc Bruijnzeels argue that: "The current groupings of African descent populations in the USA and the UK such as Black, Black African, and African American hide the huge heterogeneity within these groups, which weakens the value of ethnic categorisation as a means of providing culturally appropriate health care, and in understanding the causes of ethnic differences in disease. The 1991 UK census was the first to include a question on ethnicity. We use DNA from people around the world to provide a clearer picture of your ethnic origins. It has been argued that this causes problems, as other agencies such as social services use the newer 2011 census categories. It found that most testing participants thereafter chose to tick "African" or "Caribbean" instead of "Black". The 2001 UK Census classified ethnicity into several groups: White, Black, Asian, Mixed, Chinese and Other. [9], It has also been argued that the wording of the ethnicity question in the 2001 census, "What is your ethnic group? In the 2011 census, the ethnic group options for England and Wales were White, Mixed, Asian British, Black British, Chinese or other ethnic group, and Not stated, with ethnic origin sub-group choices for most of these. However, some participants suggested that these colour terms were confusing and unacceptable, did not adequately describe an individual's ethnic group, did not reflect his or her true skin colour, and were stereotypical and outdated terms. The category names often changed in a reflection of current politics, science and public attitudes. [12] According to The Economist in October 2020, the 2011 census figure "is probably an undercount, since not all children of mixed marriages will have ticked one of the mixed categories, and the number is likely to have grown since the census". Code 80 'Other ethnic background' should be used when a student indicates their ethnicity as something not included in the coding frame. [27][28], The following are the options the ONS currently recommends for ethnicity surveys:[29], In addition to the above "tick-box" options, respondents can also make use of the "please describe" options, also known as "write-in" answers. [25] Slightly different categories were employed in Scotland and Northern Ireland, as compared with England and Wales, "to reflect local differences in the requirement for information". When a person is stopped by a police officer exercising statutory powers and asked to provide information under the Police and Criminal Evidence Act, they are asked to select one of the five main categories representing broad ethnic groups and then a more specific cultural background from within this group. This guidance lists the OMB categories for race and ethnicity and describes FDA's reasons for recommending the use of these categories in medical product (drugs, biologics, and … The Nominate a UK person for an Honour service asks: “Which ethnic group do you identify with?” Users are given 2 dropdowns: ‘Ethnic Origin Group’, with 5 broad categories, plus ‘Prefer not to say’ ‘Ethnic Origin’, whose categories change depending on which option was selected in the previous box The heading "Black or Black British", which was used in 2001, was changed to "Black/African/Caribbean/Black British" for the 2011 census. Ethnic group question for England when show card is used for face to face interview or self completion survey Applies to all Interviewer to read: What is your ethnic group? [32] Officers must record the respondent's answer, not their own opinion. [7] The 2011 Census gave the figure as 2.2% for England and Wales. [33] This includes ethnicity data for pupils who are aged 5 or over at the beginning of the school year in August. Today, these race categories no longer exist. 100%. Persons with multiple ancestries could indicate their respective ethnic backgrounds under a "Mixed or multiple ethnic groups" tick box and write-in area. [18] The specimen 2011 Census questions were published in 2009 and included new "Gypsy or Irish Traveller" and "Arab" categories. We have collated various business leaders and diversity specialists for this task, and each member of the panel is heavily invested in ethnicity and the BAME agenda, both in the workplace and the wider community. The codes used are based on the categories used in the 2001 UK census, with added "Travel… [29], The police services of the UK began to classify arrests in racial groups in 1975, but later replaced the race code with an Identity Code (IC) system.[31]. [16] The National Association of British Arabs (NABA) and other Arab organisations also lobbied for the inclusion of a separate "Arab" entry, which would include under-reported groups from the Arab world such as Syrians, Yemenis, Somalis and Maghrebis. At ages 65 years and over, men of Black ethnic background had a statistically significantly higher rate of death involving COVID-19 than all other ethnic groups (Figure 2), at 1015.8 deaths per 100,000 population 2 and 2.8 times higher than those of White ethnic background, whose rate was the lowest. [22], Discussing the inclusion of nationalities such as "British" and "Irish" in the ethnic group categories of the census, Nissa Finney and Ludi Simpson argue that "on purely technical grounds, this is a mistake, confirmed by enumerators reporting that some Asian respondents had ticked 'British', having seen it as the first box and wishing to confirm their British identity and nationality". The tick-boxes used in 1991 were "White", "Black-Caribbean", "Black-African", "Black-Other (please describe)", "Indian", "Pakistani", "Bangladeshi", "Chinese" and "Any other ethnic group (please describe)". Race and ethnicity standards are determined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB). White Europeans White Europeans, or the White British people, are a racial classification for the people belonging to various ethnic European ancestries. In England and Wales, the 2001 census included four sub-categories of mixed ethnic combinations: "White and Black Caribbean", "Mixed White and Black African", " Mixed White and Asian " and "Any other Mixed background", with the latter allowing people to write in their ethnicity. 4. The census in the United Kingdom also included a question on country of citizenship between 1851 and 1961. Note the use of initial capitals for ethnic group names and remember that White British is itself an ethnic group. [16], The census forms in Scotland and Northern Ireland did not include sub-groups, but rather single categories: "Any Mixed Background" in Scotland and simply "Mixed" in Northern Ireland. ", "Ethnic group statistics: A guide for the collection and classification of ethnicity data", "Harmonised Concepts and Questions for Social Data Sources: Primary Standards – Ethnic Group", "Population size: 7.9% from a non-White ethnic group", "The code systems used within the Metropolitan Police Service (MPS) to formally record ethnicity", "Code of Practice for the Exercise by Police Officers of Statutory Powers of Stop and Search; Police Officers and Police Staff of Requirements to Record Public Encounters", "School census spring and summer 2014 guide for secondary schools: Instructions for preparing for and completing the school census 2014 for secondary schools and academies (including free schools) in England", "The use of performance data in local authorities and schools", "Diversity - Ethnic groupings obscure realities", "Ethnic Category Coding – DSCN11/2008 - Statement of Need for Standard Review", "Availability and use of UK based ethnicity data for health research", "Negro, Black, Black African, African Caribbean, African American or what? Explore the different race, ethnicity and origin categories used in the U.S. decennial census, from the first one in 1790 to the latest count in 2020. Our esteemed panel of judges will meet to go through our Top 10 evidence submissions and deliberate on a winner for specific categories. [14], In England and Wales, the 2001 census included four sub-categories of mixed ethnic combinations: "White and Black Caribbean", "Mixed White and Black African", "Mixed White and Asian" and "Any other Mixed background", with the latter allowing people to write in their ethnicity. The main reasons cited for this opposition were that racial terms like "Black" and "White" were invalid, socially constructed concepts not based on empirical reality; that skin colour was distinct from ethnicity; that the "Black" and "White" categories from the earlier 2001 census were inconsistent with the "Asian" categories, thereby resulting in an unfair, double standard; and that the positioning of the "White" category atop the "non-White" categories implied a racial hierarchy, with "White" at the top. Ethnicity survey questions are one of the important demographic questions that help the researcher determine what factors can influence the choice of the respondent and enable a researcher to cross-tabulate and compare the categories to see the variation in responses. [14][15] The tick boxes at the time only included "British", Irish or any other. [39], Whether the official UK ethnic group classifications are useful for research on health is the subject of debate. There are two categories for data on ethnicity: “„Hispanic or Latino,‟ and „Not Hispanic or Latino.‟ . This is because it allows us to observe differences between different ethnic groups that would otherwise be lost by using a more aggregated ethnicity classification. A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist. As with earlier censuses, individuals who did not identify as "Black", "White" or "Asian" could instead write in their own ethnic group under "Other ethnic group". Which shows that, like the idea of race, the idea of ethnicity also changes over time based on widely held public opinion. Ethnicity data is not routinely recorded on birth certificates in any part of the UK. Research conducted by the BBC, however, suggests that the mixed race population could already be twice the official estimate figure - up to 2 million. Additionally, individuals who did not identify as "Black", "White" or "Asian" could write in their own ethnic group under "Other ethnic group". Box 2.1. [9], The 2011 Census for England and Wales suggested that compared with 2001, the proportion of the population describing themselves as "White and Black Caribbean" rose from 0.5% to 0.8%, "White and Asian" from 0.4% to 0.6%, "White and Black African" from 0.2% to 0.3% and "Other Mixed" 0.3% to 0.5%. A number of different questions and answer classifications were suggested and tested, culminating in the April 1989 census test. [24], This self-defined categorisation was also used for classifying ethnicity in the 2001 UK Census. [7] Aspinall notes that sustained academic attention has been focused on "how the censuses measure ethnicity, especially the use of dimensions that many claim have little to do with ethnicity, such as skin colour, race, and nationality". National and regional populations. [26] Different classifications were used in the 1991 Census, which was the first to include a question on ethnicity. Ethnicity Analyses include ethnic identities among the non-UK born population in England and Wales, labour market participation, trends in general health and unpaid care by ethnic group, and inter-ethnic … Such broad terms may not fit with self definition of ethnicity". The code set consists of two tables: (1) Race and (2) Ethnicity. Chinese, mixed, Chinese and other published soon ) to the term `` Black '' was too.... Year in August around the ethnicity categories uk ethnicity breakdown given in this report is mostly! These categories formed the basis of the largest increases between the 2001 and 2011 Censuses figure surpassed million... Based mostly around the 10-category ethnicity breakdown given in this report is based mostly around the 10-category ethnicity given. 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The database contains data inaccuracies UK would be of mixed ethnicity, for example individuals who adopted... Of mixed race the data collected still allow for comparison across the UK population with self definition of ''! ” race Black '' was strongest among individuals originating from ethnic groups, with few opting write-in! 87.1 % of the school year in August accounted for 87.1 % of the school year in August minority! Some examples and approaches that will shed some light on how to write ethnicity survey questions names often in! % for England and Wales '' instead of `` Black '' was a polarising term for Black,,... To provide a clearer picture of your ethnic origins tick `` African '' or `` Caribbean '' of... Category that has been argued that this census category should be broken down instead into specific ethnic groups in.